You mean construction options? The last thing to unlock for both Eco and Tycoons is the final phase of monument construction, at 1400 Execs of each faction. For Deep Ocean, 1250 Geniuses will let you build any building and research anything you have unlocked. When you're in non-DO missions, I forget what the number is for Researchers.
Of course, you'll need substantially larger populations in certain situations to truly unlock everything. The Global Event on the Formers, for instance, calls for a 5000 Exec eco city in its final mission, which nets you at least one of the researches for Guardians. But these are specific missions with permanent unlockables, rather than the per-map limitations.